Revolutionary Changes Essay

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Overview
In what ways were the revolutions, expanded literacy, and political ideas linked? (The Earth and Its Peoples, 581)
The revolutions of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were directly influenced by political ideas of Enlightenment intellectuals and their students. New ideas were developed by, and extrapolated from, individuals such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet). A growing literacy amongst the people of Europe and the greater western world led to increased questioning of government, the communication and discussion of ideas in public venues, and ultimately said revolution. The scientific method was applied used to dissect the trappings of society, government, and the human
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The production and consumption of written works was paramount to the propagation of Enlightenment throughout Europe, the major catalyst of change at the time. Important features of the movement during the period included the establishment of coffeehouses and salons as centers of learning and news, the creation of debating societies, and the formation of the Republic of Letters, an informal collection of cultures and countries who used written communication to facilitate debate. The increasing organization of intellectuals transformed the movement and the situation of western societies. A shining example of the reach of Enlightenment is Benjamin Franklin, an author, inventor, and political theorist of Pennsylvania. Franklin was admired in European circles for his utilization of scientific methods and realization of human potential in various fields, including political theory.
These factors both directly and indirectly caused the American Revolution (1775-1783), the French Revolution (1789-1799), and the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804). Each of these was affected by the occurrence of the previous in some way.
The focus of the American Revolution was the war fought for independence from Britain. Its main causes were the reforms of European monarchs and the idea that government cannot exist effectively without the consent and representation of the governed. An example of this is The

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