Uses of Lithium Essay

1395 Words Jun 3rd, 2014 6 Pages
Uses of Lithium
Ceramics and glass
Lithium oxide is a widely used flux for processing silica, reducing the melting point and viscosity of the material and leading to glazes of improved physical properties including low coefficients for thermal expansion.[83] Lithium oxides are a component of ovenware. Worldwide, this is the single largest use for lithium compounds.[82] Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is generally used in this application: upon heating it converts to the oxide.[84]
Electrical and electronics
In the later years of the 20th century, owing to its high electrochemical potential, lithium became an important component of the electrolyte and of one of the electrodes in batteries. Because of its low atomic mass, it has a high
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Lithium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide from the air by forming lithium carbonate, and is preferred over other alkaline hydroxides for its low weight.
Lithium peroxide (Li2O2) in presence of moisture not only reacts with carbon dioxide to form lithium carbonate, but also releases oxygen.[92][93] The reaction is as follows:
2 Li2O2 + 2 CO2 → 2 Li2CO3 + O2.
Some of the aforementioned compounds, as well as lithium perchlorate, are used in oxygen candles that supply submarines withoxygen. These can also include small amounts of boron, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, manganese, and iron.[94]
Optics
Lithium fluoride, artificially grown as crystal, is clear and transparent and often used in specialist optics for IR, UV and VUV (vacuum UV) applications. It has one of the lowest refractive indexes and the farthest transmission range in the deep UV of most common materials.[95] Finely divided lithium fluoride powder has been used for thermoluminescent radiation dosimetry (TLD): when a sample

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