Modern Computer Networking Is Based On Tcp / Ip Essay

1307 Words Mar 30th, 2016 null Page
Modern computer networking is based on TCP/IP. TCP/IP uses IP addressing to identify hosts on a network segment. The current standard for IP addressing is IPv4. IPv4 addresses are 32-bits in length, and use subnet masks to determine the size of network segments. Through the use of subnetting the subnet mask can be altered to suit the needs of network designers. Subnetting is the process of dividing a single network into multiple different networks, for the purpose of conserving IP addresses, separating networks or creating VLANs, and to create sites in active directory sites and services.
One of the most fundamental reasons to subnet a large network into multiple smaller networks is to conserve IPv4 addresses. There are approximately 4.3 billion IPv4 addresses, but not all of them are usable. There are five classes of IPv4 addresses: Class A ranges from 1 - 126, Class B ranges 128 - 191, Class C ranges 192 - 223, Class D ranges 224 - 239, and Class E ranges 240 - 255. The five classes of IPv4 addresses represent all 4.3 billion addresses, but the only usable addresses are from Class A, Class B, and Class C. Class D is reserved for multicasts, Class E is reserved for experimental research and development, and the 127 network is reserved for the interface loopback address. Each of the classes of usable addresses supports a different number of hosts per network. A single Class A network can support a maximum of 16777214 hosts, a single Class B network can support 65534 hosts,…

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